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Subscribe today! By Scott Horton. Under Ronald Reagan and each of the presidents who followed him, America went on a privatization rampage. At some point, the privatization turned increasingly to core governmental functions: railroads and post offices were followed by a privatization of military security functions and even foreign policy.
In One Nation Under Contract, Middlebury College professor Allison Stanger takes a close look at the outsourcing of national security and foreign policy functions in the last decade. I put six questions to Stanger about her new book:. What shifts in policy account for this explosive growth in the use of contractors? The main factor was the privatization of war. This development is new and unprecedented. At the height of the Vietnam War, contractors represented just 14 percent of the American presence on the ground.
Without contractors, we would need a draft to wage these two wars, and with a draft, we would obviously have a very different political situation. While wartime contracting and successive supplemental appropriations have fueled these dramatic trends, this is not a partisan issue.
Democrats and Republicans alike embraced outsourcing the work of government to the private sector whenever possible, both as a perceived cost-savings measure and as a mechanism for getting things done more efficiently. Taxpayer money obviously cannot be well spent when government is not following the money. Your numbers end during the Bush years—can you carry them forward to the Obama Administration? What difference has Barack Obama made to this process? There were over reported cases of contracting mistakes or abuses in Iraq from through In January , Stuart W.
Bowen Jr. Solis, director of defense capabilities and management for the Government Accountability Office, testified to Congress that they knew of not a single instance of anyone being fired or denied promotion in connection with those cases. Government knows that something has gone wrong, but it is so short of hands on deck that it cannot do anything. The trends mapped in the book have continued unabated under the Obama Administration, and in many ways our dependence on contractors has grown.
When the State Department replaces the U. If the proposed cuts go through, it would likely close the web site, USASpending. I am a Vermont-based professor without a security clearance. From , State Department spending on contracting increased by percent. Without transparency in subcontracts, we are effectively pouring taxpayer money into a black hole in Afghanistan, with no real means of knowing how well that money is likely to be spent or even who is receiving it.
Yet the degree of imperfect transparency that presently exists on USAspending. Has the growth in the number of contractors been associated with a growth in the number of people supervising and auditing contracts? As outsourcing has exploded, the number of people supervising and auditing contracts has actually shrunk. This is because we are involved in a false debate about the size of government in this country today. But being a private security contractor was a shady business, if not in the "legal" sense, in the "keeping off the radar" sense. Many of the contracts that were granted to companies such as Blackwater included clauses that severely limited the companies' ability to talk to members of the media.
Contracting was, by the design of the U. It was also designed to be nothing more than a cost-saving, stopgap measure. But as U. A contractor's experiences often don't draw a great deal of attention, unless someone is kidnapped, or has done something wrong. As Congress began to investigate the government's use of contractors several years ago, the issues that drew the most attention were the lack of clear rules governing contractors, and just how much money they were being paid. While it's true that money has always been a big draw, there are other parts of the job and lifestyle that rarely get reported.
They would work for several months at a time and then come home before heading off on the next assignment. Many of the jobs didn't come with life insurance policies or medical coverage for their families back home. It's nowhere near the million he thought he would earn.
But the money wasn't bad, either. Some paid higher, some paid lower, but over time the company started paying less. They diluted the pool of skills. They lowered the qualifications 'cause they needed people. Was it worth the money? Small arms fire, some RPGs rocket-propelled grenades , some grenade attacks on the vehicles. It didn't happen daily, but it was dangerous. For a while, he provided base security at one of the most sensitive CIA bases in the region.
After Goldstein lost his case, Congress amended the federal nuclear whistleblower law to provide protection reports made to internal systems and prevent retaliation against whistleblowers. Israeli nuclear weapons program. Revealed Israel's clandestine nuclear program to the British press.
He spent seventeen and a half years in prison as a result, the first eleven of these in solitary confinement. After his release, sanctions were placed on him: among others, he was not allowed to leave Israel or speak to foreigners.
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The sanctions have been renewed every twelve months. At present, he is appealing a further six-month prison sentence imposed by an Israeli court for having spoken to foreigners and foreign press. After its publication in Australia, which the Thatcher government tried to block, the government attempted to ban the book in Britain under the Official Secrets Act. Through litigation, it succeeded in imposing a gag order on English newspapers to prevent them from publishing Wright's allegations. The gag orders were upheld by the Law Lords.
In , Templeton was appointed as a trustee of the Mirror Group Pension Scheme, but was fired in after challenging Maxwell's misuses of pension funds. Roland Gibeault. Gibeault filed a qui tam lawsuit against defense subcontractor Genisco Technology Corp. Douglas D. United Technologies Corporation. Filed a qui tam lawsuit against United Technologies Corp. UTX where he held the title vice president of finance. Keeth and others had investigated billing practices at UTX's Sikorsky Aircraft division, uncovering inflated progress billings going back at least as far as UTX offered Mr.
William Schumer. Filed a lawsuit January alleging fraud by Hughes Aircraft with respect to the B-2 bomber. In the Supreme Court held that the claim should have been dismissed as based on invalid retroactive legislation because the alleged fraud occurred in —, before the amendments to the Fraudulent Claims Act which might have permitted it. The government did not support Schumer in his lawsuit as it had determined the alleged fraud had actually benefited the government by shifting costs from the cost-plus B-2 contract to the fixed-price F contract.
Myron Mehlman. A toxicologist , he warned managers at Mobil that the company's gasoline that was being sold in Japan contained benzene in excess of 5 percent, and that levels needed to be reduced. Upon his return to the United States, he was fired. He later successfully sued the company. Nuclear Energy Services. According to The New York Times , for three years, Gundersen "was awakened by harassing phone calls in the middle of the night" and he "became concerned about his family's safety".
Gundersen believes he was blacklisted, harassed and fired for doing what he thought was right. Archer Daniels Midland. PhD scientist and former Divisional President with Archer Daniels Midland, who worked with the FBI as a secret informant , to blow the whistle on price-fixing cartel in his company. This story is featured in the film The Informant! Keith A. Schooley born is an American author and former stockbroker at Merrill Lynch , who brought attention to fraud and corruption within the firm at the Oklahoma and Texas offices in as a whistleblower.
French Institute for Research and Security. The French Institute for Research and Security decided not to allow him to participate in a symposium that he was organizing on health risks linked with ether glycols, and fired him. In it was confirmed that he was right. William Sanjour. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Whistleblower at the U. Environmental Protection Agency for over 20 years who also wrote on whistleblower protection issues. EPA,56 F. Nuclear power industry. Nuclear power whistleblower George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant , relating to reactor refueling procedures, in As a result of going to the NRC, Galatis experienced "subtle forms of harassment, retaliation, and intimidation".
Wigand claims that he was subsequently harassed and received anonymous death threats. He was portrayed by Russell Crowe in the film The Insider. Canadian government. The first whistleblower on the Canadian "AdScam" or sponsorship scandal. Without legal protection, he was fired by the Canadian government. As the case developed, federal legislation was passed to protect future whistleblowers in the Canadian civil service. Several convictions have been recorded to date with the case, with proceedings still in progress. David Franklin. Exposed illegal promotion of the epilepsy drug Neurontin for un-approved uses while withholding evidence that the drug was not effective for these conditions.
The case had widespread effects including: establishing a new standards for pharmaceutical marketing practices; broadening the use of the False Claims Act to make fraudulent marketing claims criminal violations; exposing complicity and active participation in fraud by renowned physicians; and demonstrating how medical literature had been systematically adulterated by the pharmaceutical industry and its paid clinical consultants. Los Angeles Police Department. At the meeting, Ruppert publicly alleged the existence of classified CIA programs named "Amadeus", "Pegasus", and "Watchtower", claiming to possess evidence for the programs including redacted documents from "Watchtower", and stated that CIA officers had attempted to involve him in protecting these CIA operations during the late s.
Starting in , Olivieri was part of a group conducting a clinical trial in order to evaluate the use of a drug of Apotex , deferiprone , in treating persons with a blood disorder, thalassaemia. Olivieri informed both the research ethics board that was monitoring the study and Apotex , the drug maker. The research ethics board instructed Olivieri to inform participants about her concerns. Apotex responded by noting that Olivieri had signed a confidentiality agreement as part of the drug trial and that informing participants about her concerns, the validity of which Apotex disputed, would violate that confidentiality agreement.
Apotex threatened to vigorously pursue all legal remedies against her if she disclosed her conclusions to patients. Olivieri disclosed her concerns to her patients and Apotex ended the portion of the study in which she was participating. In , the New England Journal of Medicine published her paper suggesting that deferiprone led to progressive hepatic fibrosis.
A chemist at the U. He reported a lack of scientific standards and serious flaws in the FBI Lab, including in the first World Trade Center bombing cases and the Oklahoma City bombing case. Whitehurst's whistleblower disclosures triggered an overhaul of the FBI's crime lab following a report by the U. Department of Justice Inspector General in Shayler also accused the Security Services of planting false stories in the press, substantiated in one example by a court.
A night guard at a Swiss bank, he discovered that his employer was destroying records of savings by Holocaust victims, which the bank was required to return to heirs of the victims. After the Swiss authorities sought to arrest Meili, he was given political asylum in the United States. Australian Government. Alan Parkinson is a mechanical and nuclear engineer who has written the book, Maralinga: Australia's Nuclear Waste Cover-up , about the clean-up of the British atomic bomb test site at Maralinga in South Australia.
By , however, there was much cost-cutting involved which compromised the project, and personal differences about how the project should proceed, which led to the sacking of Parkinson by the new Howard government. A microbiologist and activist who was involved in one of the first major whistleblowing incidents in the Canadian public service. Accused European Commission members of corruption. See Resignation of the Santer Commission. International Olympic Committee. Clinton Administration.
Former White House staff member who disclosed to the Office of Independent Counsel that Monica Lewinsky committed perjury and attempted to suborn perjury, and President Bill Clinton committed misconduct, by denying the Clinton-Lewinsky relationship in the Paula Jones federal civil rights suit. A victim of retaliation by the Clinton Administration, Tripp successfully sued the Department of Defense and the Justice Department for releasing information from her security file and employment file to the news media in violation of the Privacy Act of In addition, she received a retroactive promotion and retroactive pay for the years , , and , a pension and was cleared to work for the federal government again.
Youri Bandazhevsky. In , Youri Bandazhevsky released the results that he accumulated about the health problems of children in the contaminated area of Chernobyl. He is arrested in July Marlene Garcia-Esperat. Philippines Department of Agriculture. Former analytical chemist for the Philippines Department of Agriculture who became a journalist to expose departmental corruption, and was murdered in Her assailants later surrendered to police, and have testified that they were hired by officials in the Department of Agriculture. United States Department of Commerce. Exposed widespread systemic racism and retaliation within the Department of Commerce against African-American employees.
United States Air Force. Retired lieutenant colonel in the U. Kruszewski is a whistleblower, with settlements from suits brought against Southwood Psychiatric Hospital, Pfizer, Inc. Kruszewski became aware of inadequate care and the exploiting of state-committed mentally ill children through overmedication and physical and chemical restraints while working for the Department of Public Welfare, Bureau of Program Integrity for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
When he refused to keep silent about his discoveries, he was fired from his position at the state. He also demonstrated problems with off-label marketing marketing that promotes uses, patients or doses that are not approved by the US FDA which resulted in heightened, but often non-transparent, risk to the health of patients and exceptional costs to taxpayers and state and federal governments.
According to the research of Pearse, lobby groups representing the largest fossil fuel producing or consuming industries in Australia referred to themselves as the Greenhouse Mafia. AIGN members boasted to Pearse in recorded interviews how they routinely gained access to what should be confidential information concerning government policy on energy and transport.
Pearse cited recorded interviews with AIGN members and said that lobbyists had written cabinet submissions, ministerial briefings, and costings in two departments on at least half a dozen occasions over a decade. Pearse says that this influence is entrenched to such an extent that fossil fuel industry lobby groups have actually been writing Australia's greenhouse policy at least since the Kyoto Protocol in , and probably even before John Howard became Prime Minister in Marsha Coleman-Adebayo. She blew the whistle on the EPA for racial and gender discrimination in violation of Civil Rights Act of which began after she was removed from her position in South Africa where her "job was to essentially help the South African government to work on issues that impact public health".
Her case eventually led to the passing of the No-FEAR Act in that makes federal agencies more accountable for employee complaints.
List of whistleblowers
Qwest was the only telecommunications company to require FISA court orders. Nacchio claims that in retaliation, Qwest subsequently was denied government contracts. Swiss tobacco control advocates and alumni from the University of Geneva who revealed the secret ties of Ragnar Rylander see French Wikipedia , professor of environmental health, to the tobacco industry. In a public statement made in , Pascal Diethelm and Jean-Charles Rielle accused Rylander of being "secretly employed by Philip Morris" and qualified of "scientific fraud without precedent" the concealment of his links with the tobacco industry for a period of 30 years, during which he publicly presented himself as an independent scientist, while obeying orders given by Philip Morris executives and lawyers, publishing articles and organizing symposia which denied or trivialized the toxicity of secondhand smoke.
After a long trial, which went up to the supreme court of Switzerland, all accusations were found to be true. The DOJ retaliated by pushing her out of the Department, getting her fired from her next job, trying to get her law licence revoked, and other means. Congressman Gustavo Petro presented that debate to Congress introduced Mr. The investigation took as a starting point the crossing of information referring to facts in which the violation of human rights occurred, which contained the names of the leaders of the most important paramilitary groups of the moment.
That infiltration and the paramilitary actions were aimed at eliminating the political opposition, in order to definitely install the Uribe as the family in power. United Nations International Police. Originally hired by the U. She eventually reported that such officers were paying for prostitutes and participating in sex-trafficking. Cynthia Cooper. Exposed corporate financial scandal. Jointly named Time' s People of the Year in Diann Shipione, a former trustee of the San Diego City retirement board,  is credited with exposing unlawful underfunding of the city's pension fund  and the omission of multiple billions of dollars of pension and retiree healthcare debt in the City of San Diego municipal bond offering  sales documents.
Outlined the FBI's slow action before the September 11, attacks. William Binney J. Kirke Wiebe Edward Loomis. Department of Defense inspector general to investigate wasteful spending on the Trailblazer Project and the NSA officials eventually went public when they were ignored and retaliated upon.
They claim that Thinthread was more focused thus more effective and lower cost than Trailblazer and subsequent programs, which automatically collected trillions of domestic communications of Americans in deliberate violation of the U. Argentine-born Spanish accountant, employed by the European Commission as Chief Accountant, and notable for raising concerns about fraud potential within EU, neglected by the Commission. Glenn Walp Steven L. Glenn Walp and Steven L.
Doran were hired to investigate allegations of fraud at the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory.
They were fired after they exposed breaches of security as well as fraud and mismanagement to the Department of Energy. Their investigation resulted in congressional hearings. Former FBI translator naturalized American citizen of Turkish descent who was fired in by the FBI for attempting to report coverups of security issues, potential espionage, and incompetence. She has been gagged by the State Secrets Privilege in her efforts to go to court on these issues, including a rejection recently by the Supreme Court of the United States to hear her case without comment.
She is now founder of the National Security Whistleblowers Coalition NSWBC that is looking to lobby congress and help other whistleblowers with legal and other forms of assistance. Frank "Greg" Ford. Frank "Greg" Ford is a retired counterintelligence agent with over 30 years of military service.
After reporting to superiors systematic abuse of Iraqi detainees at Samarra, Sgt. Ford was judged mentally unstable by an Army psychiatrist and renditioned to Landstuhl, Germany to receive further psychological evaluation. In all following psychiatric assessments, Ford was determined to be of sound mind.
In later interviews and press appearances, Ford also alleges he witnessed the diversion of U. Courtland Kelley. Courtland Kelley was the head of the General Motors inspection and quality assurance program for many years. He found faults in the Chevrolet Cavalier and the Chevrolet Cobalt, and repeatedly reported them, with little response.
He thought his supervisors were more interested in maintaining sales and their own positions than with expensive recalls. In , Kelley sued GM alleging that the company had been slow to address the dangers in its cars and trucks. Even though he lost the court case, Kelley thought that by blowing the whistle he had done the right and proper thing. Faulty ignition switches in the Cobalts, which cut power to the car while in motion, were eventually linked to many crashes resulting in fatalities, starting with a teenager in who drove her new Cobalt into a tree.
Thirteen deaths were attributed to the faulty switches during the time the company failed to recall the cars. Leaked top-secret information to the press concerning alleged illegal activities by the United States and the United Kingdom in their push for the invasion of Iraq.
United States Transportation Security Administration. Federal Air Marshal who exposed the TSA's agency-wide plan to remove Federal Air Marshals from nonstop, long distance flights for two months in order to avoid expenditures associated with air marshals lodging in hotels overnight.
The plan was formulated in response to a budget shortfall due to overspending. The plan was formulated three days after the U.
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Department of Homeland Security DHS issued an Advisory that warned the airline industry and law enforcement of a suicide hijacking plot in which terrorists would exploit U. After outrage from U. MacLean was fired after DHS discovered he disclosed the plan. United States Government. Former U. After Convertino testified before the U.
Additionally, the Justice Department indicted Convertino for obstruction of justice and lying, which Convertino alleges is further whistleblower retaliation. India National Highways Authority. Assassinated on November 27, Enormous media coverage following his death may lead to Whistleblower Act in India. First alerted the U. Neil Patrick Carrick. Greater Grace World Outreeach. Multiple articles across the United State and Internationally would follow. Following the split of the international organization hundreds of congregations, schools would change their affiliation with the organization.
In the following years, several individuals would be convicted of sexual abuse related crimes including staff members from the Baltimore Church. Accused Parliament members of invalid expense claims. United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office. British Ambassador to Uzbekistan who opposed the Karimov regime's use of torture and its other violations of human rights, and British Government support for the use of torture. Nuclear power whistleblower Gerald W.
Brown was a former firestop contractor and consultant who uncovered the Thermo-lag circuit integrity scandal and silicone foam scandals in U. System administrator for U. Army Military Intelligence at the Abu Ghraib prison who publicly revealed the role of interrogators in the abuses, as well the general effort to cover-up the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse itself.
Former vice president at Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Rost reported about accounting irregularities and other irregularities to his management. He was then transferred from Sweden to a position in New Jersey, a change that he characterized as a retaliatory demotion. He sued Wyeth, and the case was settled out of court on undisclosed terms.
He reported this activity to his managers at Pfizer after Pfizer's purchase of Pharmacia, and later filed a False Claims suit against the company. The Department of Justice declined to join the suit as Pfizer had already disclosed the violations. He was exiled internally by Pfizer and removed from all responsibilities and decision making, a move which Rost says was due to his whistleblowing. In , he testified in Congress as a private individual in favour of drug reimportation, a position strongly at odds with the official policy of the pharmaceutical industry.
In December , Rost was fired from Pfizer. Philippines Jueteng illegal numbers game whistleblower. Food and Drug Administration. United States Department of Energy. Toni Hoffman is a senior Australian nurse who exposed the medical malpractice of surgeon Jayant Patel. She originally began to raise doubts about the ability of Patel with hospital management and other staff. Both doctors and surgeons who were familiar with his work were also deeply concerned. Patel became the subject of the Morris Inquiry and later the Davies Commission. Eventually the matter was raised in the Queensland Parliament.
Tice first approached Congress and eventually the media about the warrantless surveillance of the U. He was the first to speak publicly and openly with allegations during the era beginning with the George W. Bush administration which continues into the Obama administration. He had earlier been known for reporting suspicions that a DIA colleague of his might be a Chinese spy.
World Meteorological Organization. Enquired about a fraud, wrote a final report in Thomas Andrews Drake. Thomas Drake worked at the NSA in various analyst and management positions. He blew the whistle on the NSA's Trailblazer Project that he felt was a violation of the Fourth Amendment and other laws and regulations. In April , Drake was indicted by a grand jury on various charges, including obstructing justice and making false statements.
After the May 22, broadcast of a 60 Minutes episode on the Drake case, the government dropped all of the charges against Drake and agreed not to seek any jail time in return for Drake's agreement to plead guilty to a misdemeanor of misusing the agency's computer system. Drake was sentenced to one year of probation and community service. Bunnatine "Bunny" H. Former chief civilian contracting officer for the United States Army Corps of Engineers who exposed illegality in the no-bid contracts for reconstruction in Iraq by a Halliburton subsidiary.
An American banker who formerly worked for UBS , Switzerland's largest bank, he was the first person who exposed what has become a multibillion-dollar international tax fraud scandal over Swiss private banking.
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His home was raided in during FBI investigation of the leaks and he began to openly speak out publicly in Sandia National Laboratories. Discovered that a sophisticated group of hackers were systematically penetrating hundreds of computer networks at major U. After informing his superiors at Sandia, he was directed not to share the information with anyone, because management cared only about Sandia's computers. He, however, went on to voluntarily work with the U.
When Sandia discovered his actions, they terminated his employment and revoked his security clearance. His story was first reported in the September 5, , issue of Time. The jury found Sandia Corporation's handling of Mr. Carpenter's firing was "malicious, willful, reckless, wanton, fraudulent, or in bad faith.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Exposed Philip Cooney , a White House official who edited a climate change report to reflect the administration's views without having any scientific background.
Shanmughan Manjunath. Indian Oil Corporation. He was shot dead on November 19, , allegedly by a petrol pump owner from Uttar Pradesh. Paul Moore. Executive at the UK bank HBOS who in was fired, allegedly after warning his senior colleagues that the company's sales strategy was at odds with prudent management. In Moore spoke out about his warnings to the Treasury Select Committee of parliament during its investigation into the turmoil in the UK banking system.
United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Aguirre was fired for complaining about special treatment for Mack, which prompted investigations by the Senate Finance Committee and the Senate Judiciary Committee , culminating in a joint report vindicating Aguirre. Food and Drug Administration , recommended that the product label for the diabetes drug Avandia include a strong warning that the use of the drug could result in congestive heart failure. She was reprimanded by FDA managers, who transferred the Avandia safety review work to her supervisor.
Johann-Liang was vindicated in May , when the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine aired similar concerns about problems with Avandia, and the FDA finally requested a "Black Box" warning label for the product. Johann-Liang ended up resigning from the FDA. Walter DeNino. Student and lab technician who questioned Eric Poehlman 's integrity. Marco Pautasso. World Intellectual Property Organization. The facility is alleged to be one of several operated by the National Security Agency as part of the warrantless surveillance undertaken by the Bush administration in the wake of the September 11, terrorist attacks.
Cate Jenkins. Congress, and FBI detailing the chemical composition of dust from the September 11 attacks and its hazards to responders. She alerted The New York Times in  and said in a CBS interview  that the EPA explicitly lied about the danger of the dust which caused chemical burns in the lungs of responders , debilitating illnesses in many that included fatalities, and that it could have been prevented with proper safety equipment. Jenkins claims that the EPA has been misleading about evidence of debris inhalation hazards since the s. She was fired and in successfully sued to be reinstated,  .
Michael G. Bowen III, the chief underwriter of Citigroup's Consumer Lending Group, began warning the board of directors about the extreme risks being taken on by the mortgage operation that could potentially result in massive losses. Many of the mortgages were not only defective, but were fraudulent. Bowen attempted to rouse the board via weekly reports and other communications. On November 3, , Bowen emailed Citigroup chairman Robert Rubin and the bank's chief financial officer, chief auditor and the chief risk management officer to again expose the risk and potential losses, and claiming that the group's internal controls had broken down.
He requested an outside investigation of his business unit that eventually confirmed his charges. In retaliation, Citigroup stripped Bowen of most of his responsibilities and informing him that his physical presence was no longer required at the bank. Starting in , Resnick sued the pharmaceutical company Omnicare, a major supplier of drugs to nursing homes , under federal whistleblower law, as well as the parties to the company's illegal kickback schemes. Omnicare allegedly paid kickbacks to nursing home operators in order to secure business, which constitutes Medicare and Medicaid fraud.
New Jersey State Police. During his first few days as a rookie New Jersey State Trooper , Hopson witnessed an unlawful arrest and false report made by his training officer. When he refused to testify in support of the illegal arrest, he was subjected to hazing and harassment by his fellow troopers.