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The increased availability has created a new dimension to business intelligence termed " spatial intelligence " which, when openly delivered via intranet, democratizes access to geographic and social network data. Geospatial intelligence , based on GIS spatial analysis, has also become a key element for security. GIS as a whole can be described as conversion to a vectorial representation or to any other digitisation process. Slope can be defined as the steepness or gradient of a unit of terrain, usually measured as an angle in degrees or as a percentage.

Aspect can be defined as the direction in which a unit of terrain faces. Aspect is usually expressed in degrees from north. Slope, aspect, and surface curvature in terrain analysis are all derived from neighborhood operations using elevation values of a cell's adjacent neighbours. The following method can be used to derive slope and aspect: The elevation at a point or unit of terrain will have perpendicular tangents slope passing through the point, in an east-west and north-south direction.

The gradient is defined as a vector quantity with components equal to the partial derivatives of the surface in the x and y directions. Zhou and Liu [28] describe another formula for calculating aspect, as follows:. It is difficult to relate wetlands maps to rainfall amounts recorded at different points such as airports, television stations, and schools.

A GIS, however, can be used to depict two- and three-dimensional characteristics of the Earth's surface, subsurface, and atmosphere from information points. For example, a GIS can quickly generate a map with isopleth or contour lines that indicate differing amounts of rainfall. Such a map can be thought of as a rainfall contour map. Many sophisticated methods can estimate the characteristics of surfaces from a limited number of point measurements. A two-dimensional contour map created from the surface modeling of rainfall point measurements may be overlaid and analyzed with any other map in a GIS covering the same area.

This GIS derived map can then provide additional information - such as the viability of water power potential as a renewable energy source. Similarly, GIS can be used to compare other renewable energy resources to find the best geographic potential for a region. Additionally, from a series of three-dimensional points, or digital elevation model , isopleth lines representing elevation contours can be generated, along with slope analysis, shaded relief , and other elevation products.

Human Geography

Watersheds can be easily defined for any given reach, by computing all of the areas contiguous and uphill from any given point of interest. Similarly, an expected thalweg of where surface water would want to travel in intermittent and permanent streams can be computed from elevation data in the GIS. A GIS can recognize and analyze the spatial relationships that exist within digitally stored spatial data. These topological relationships allow complex spatial modelling and analysis to be performed. Topological relationships between geometric entities traditionally include adjacency what adjoins what , containment what encloses what , and proximity how close something is to something else.

Geometric networks are linear networks of objects that can be used to represent interconnected features, and to perform special spatial analysis on them. A geometric network is composed of edges, which are connected at junction points, similar to graphs in mathematics and computer science. Just like graphs, networks can have weight and flow assigned to its edges, which can be used to represent various interconnected features more accurately.

Geometric networks are often used to model road networks and public utility networks, such as electric, gas, and water networks. Network modeling is also commonly employed in transportation planning , hydrology modeling, and infrastructure modeling. GIS hydrological models can provide a spatial element that other hydrological models lack, with the analysis of variables such as slope, aspect and watershed or catchment area. Slope and aspect can then be used to determine direction of surface runoff, and hence flow accumulation for the formation of streams, rivers and lakes.

Areas of divergent flow can also give a clear indication of the boundaries of a catchment. Once a flow direction and accumulation matrix has been created, queries can be performed that show contributing or dispersal areas at a certain point. One of the main uses of hydrological modeling is in environmental contamination research.

Other applications of hydrological modeling include groundwater and surface water mapping , as well as flood risk maps. Dana Tomlin probably coined the term "cartographic modeling" in his PhD dissertation ; he later used it in the title of his book, Geographic Information Systems and Cartographic Modeling Tomlin used raster layers, but the overlay method see below can be used more generally. Operations on map layers can be combined into algorithms, and eventually into simulation or optimization models. The combination of several spatial datasets points, lines, or polygons creates a new output vector dataset, visually similar to stacking several maps of the same region.

These overlays are similar to mathematical Venn diagram overlays. A union overlay combines the geographic features and attribute tables of both inputs into a single new output. An intersect overlay defines the area where both inputs overlap and retains a set of attribute fields for each.

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A symmetric difference overlay defines an output area that includes the total area of both inputs except for the overlapping area. Data extraction is a GIS process similar to vector overlay, though it can be used in either vector or raster data analysis. Rather than combining the properties and features of both datasets, data extraction involves using a "clip" or "mask" to extract the features of one data set that fall within the spatial extent of another dataset.

In raster data analysis, the overlay of datasets is accomplished through a process known as "local operation on multiple rasters" or " map algebra ", through a function that combines the values of each raster's matrix. This function may weigh some inputs more than others through use of an "index model" that reflects the influence of various factors upon a geographic phenomenon.

What is Spatial Data - An Introduction to Spatial Data and its Applications

Geostatistics is a branch of statistics that deals with field data, spatial data with a continuous index. It provides methods to model spatial correlation, and predict values at arbitrary locations interpolation. When phenomena are measured, the observation methods dictate the accuracy of any subsequent analysis. Due to the nature of the data e. This loss of precision is determined from the scale and distribution of the data collection.

To determine the statistical relevance of the analysis, an average is determined so that points gradients outside of any immediate measurement can be included to determine their predicted behavior. This is due to the limitations of the applied statistic and data collection methods, and interpolation is required to predict the behavior of particles, points, and locations that are not directly measurable. Interpolation is the process by which a surface is created, usually a raster dataset, through the input of data collected at a number of sample points.

There are several forms of interpolation, each which treats the data differently, depending on the properties of the data set. In comparing interpolation methods, the first consideration should be whether or not the source data will change exact or approximate. Next is whether the method is subjective, a human interpretation, or objective. Then there is the nature of transitions between points: are they abrupt or gradual.

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Finally, there is whether a method is global it uses the entire data set to form the model , or local where an algorithm is repeated for a small section of terrain. Interpolation is a justified measurement because of a spatial autocorrelation principle that recognizes that data collected at any position will have a great similarity to, or influence of those locations within its immediate vicinity.

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Digital elevation models , triangulated irregular networks , edge-finding algorithms, Thiessen polygons , Fourier analysis , weighted moving averages , inverse distance weighting , kriging , spline , and trend surface analysis are all mathematical methods to produce interpolative data. A reference theme is required to geocode individual addresses, such as a road centerline file with address ranges. The individual address locations have historically been interpolated, or estimated, by examining address ranges along a road segment.

These are usually provided in the form of a table or database. The software will then place a dot approximately where that address belongs along the segment of centerline. Geocoding can also be applied against actual parcel data, typically from municipal tax maps. In this case, the result of the geocoding will be an actually positioned space as opposed to an interpolated point. This approach is being increasingly used to provide more precise location information. Reverse geocoding is the process of returning an estimated street address number as it relates to a given coordinate.

For example, a user can click on a road centerline theme thus providing a coordinate and have information returned that reflects the estimated house number. This house number is interpolated from a range assigned to that road segment. Note that reverse geocoding does not return actual addresses, only estimates of what should be there based on the predetermined range. Coupled with GIS, multi-criteria decision analysis methods support decision-makers in analysing a set of alternative spatial solutions, such as the most likely ecological habitat for restoration, against multiple criteria, such as vegetation cover or roads.

MCDA uses decision rules to aggregate the criteria, which allows the alternative solutions to be ranked or prioritised. Cartography is the design and production of maps, or visual representations of spatial data. The vast majority of modern cartography is done with the help of computers, usually using GIS but production of quality cartography is also achieved by importing layers into a design program to refine it. First, it produces graphics on the screen or on paper that convey the results of analysis to the people who make decisions about resources.

Wall maps and other graphics can be generated, allowing the viewer to visualize and thereby understand the results of analyses or simulations of potential events. Web Map Servers facilitate distribution of generated maps through web browsers using various implementations of web-based application programming interfaces AJAX , Java , Flash , etc. Second, other database information can be generated for further analysis or use.

Traditional maps are abstractions of the real world, a sampling of important elements portrayed on a sheet of paper with symbols to represent physical objects. People who use maps must interpret these symbols. Topographic maps show the shape of land surface with contour lines or with shaded relief. Today, graphic display techniques such as shading based on altitude in a GIS can make relationships among map elements visible, heightening one's ability to extract and analyze information.

A GIS was used to register and combine the two images to render the three-dimensional perspective view looking down the San Andreas Fault , using the Thematic Mapper image pixels, but shaded using the elevation of the landforms. An archeochrome is a new way of displaying spatial data. It is suited to the visual display of heat-loss data. These tools can come in the form of add-ins to existing wider-purpose software such as spreadsheets.

GIS or spatial data mining is the application of data mining methods to spatial data. Typical applications include environmental monitoring. A characteristic of such applications is that spatial correlation between data measurements require the use of specialized algorithms for more efficient data analysis. The implementation of a GIS is often driven by jurisdictional such as a city , purpose, or application requirements. Generally, a GIS implementation may be custom-designed for an organization.

Hence, a GIS deployment developed for an application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIS that has been developed for some other application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose. GIS provides, for every kind of location-based organization, a platform to update geographical data without wasting time to visit the field and update a database manually. GIS when integrated with other powerful enterprise solutions like SAP [36] and the Wolfram Language [37] helps creating powerful decision support system at enterprise level.

Compliance tests are not available for all specifications. These services give the public access to huge amounts of geographic data; perceived by many users to be as trustworthy and usable as professional information. Some of them, like Google Maps and OpenLayers , expose an application programming interface API that enable users to create custom applications. Web mapping has also uncovered the potential of crowdsourcing geodata in projects like OpenStreetMap , which is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world.

These mashup projects have been proven to provide a high level of value and benefit to end users outside that possible through traditional geographic information. The condition of the Earth's surface, atmosphere, and subsurface can be examined by feeding satellite data into a GIS. As an example, the changes in vegetation vigor through a growing season can be animated to determine when drought was most extensive in a particular region. The resulting graphic represents a rough measure of plant health. Working with two variables over time would then allow researchers to detect regional differences in the lag between a decline in rainfall and its effect on vegetation.

The satellite sensor output used to generate a vegetation graphic is produced for example by the advanced very-high-resolution radiometer AVHRR. This sensor system detects the amounts of energy reflected from the Earth's surface across various bands of the spectrum for surface areas of about 1 square kilometer.

The satellite sensor produces images of a particular location on the Earth twice a day. In addition to the integration of time in environmental studies, GIS is also being explored for its ability to track and model the progress of humans throughout their daily routines. A concrete example of progress in this area is the recent release of time-specific population data by the U. In this data set, the populations of cities are shown for daytime and evening hours highlighting the pattern of concentration and dispersion generated by North American commuting patterns.

Tools and technologies emerging from the World Wide Web Consortium 's Semantic Web are proving useful for data integration problems in information systems. Ontologies are a key component of this semantic approach as they allow a formal, machine-readable specification of the concepts and relationships in a given domain.

This in turn allows a GIS to focus on the intended meaning of data rather than its syntax or structure. For example, reasoning that a land cover type classified as deciduous needleleaf trees in one dataset is a specialization or subset of land cover type forest in another more roughly classified dataset can help a GIS automatically merge the two datasets under the more general land cover classification.

Also, simpler ontologies and semantic metadata standards are being proposed by the W3C Geo Incubator Group [50] to represent geospatial data on the web. With the popularization of GIS in decision making, scholars have begun to scrutinize the social and political implications of GIS. At the end of the 20th century, GIS began to be recognized as tools that could be used in the classroom. GIS seem to provide many advantages in teaching geography because they allow for analyses based on real geographic data and also help raise many research questions from teachers and students in classrooms, as well as they contribute to improvement in learning by developing spatial and geographical thinking and, in many cases, student motivation.

GIS is proven as an organization-wide, enterprise and enduring technology that continues to change how local government operates. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see GIS disambiguation. System to capture, manage and present geographic data. Main article: GIS file formats. Main article: Map projection. Further information: Spatial analysis. Main article: Geostatistics. Main article: Geocoding.

Main article: Open Geospatial Consortium. Main article: Web mapping. See also: Historical geographic information system and Time geography. See also: Esri Education User Conference. Advances in geographic information systems, computers, environment and urban systems, Vol. Urban Design International. Journal of Spatial Information Science 1. Retrieved 18 April Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 10 May Design with nature.

Natural History Press. January Cartography and Geographic Information Systems. Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 9 June Archived from the original on 14 July Harvard University. Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 21 March ESRI Press. Redlands, CA. Retrieved 5 May Johns County in Florida believes that department operates much more efficiently now that it uses its GIS-based TAM system to prepare a predetermined schedule and path for The GIS Information Management Officer GIMO will oversee, manage and implement meticulous and structured field data collection, uploads to OpenStreetMap, and the processing of confidential or non-public humanitarian data.

Introduces the principles and terminology of natural resources, landscape ecology and ecosystem management. GIS could be used as decision-making tools for various problems involving spatial data. Web-based Geographic Information Systems GIS principles to develop, collect, and disseminate geospatial data and services. A later section of the chapter provides a more extended discussion of data model-ing in the particular context of dynamic models. Geographic information systems GIS combine the age-old science of cartography with powerful technology to generate all types of valuable spatial and geographic data.

Spatial data refers to all types of data objects or elements that are present in a geographical space or horizon. Goals of the course include the fundamentals of geographic information science and technology; spatial, analytical, and critical thinking applied to imagery; and problem solving using GIS. These training modules are designed for public health professionals with little or no experience using ArcGIS. The DBMS provides users and programmers with a systematic way to create, retrieve, update and manage data.

Other research interests include: GIS data management, cartography, freshwater systems and anadromous fish. A spatial data model that defines space as an array of equally sized cells arranged in rows and columns, and composed of single or multiple bands. The geodatabase storage model is based on DBMS principles, leveraging a series of simple yet essential relational database concepts.

Course also aims to develop Course also aims to develop the skill of using software and other tools of GIS in students. Outcomes: 1. How would you describe the pace of work at Western Land Services, Inc? What is the most stressful part about working at Western Land Services, The Geographic Information Systems course from Ulster University has been designed to provide a broad-based and hands-on education in the principles and practice of GIS.

Principle 1 — A data management plan. Upon completion of this program, you will be able to visualize, question, manipulate, and interpret data using industry-recognized GIS applications. Integrated map display, editing, and production environment.

It demonstrates and proves the savings in time and money that can be achieved, as well as the mitigation of risks that stem from inappropriate use of data and information. GIS is a system that collects, displays, manages and analyzes geographic information. Introduction The Editors. A professional program associated with the Geography Department.

Students will develop competence and confidence at recognizing, interpreting, and applying GIS skills via maps and mapping. It can be used to analyse spatial data or geographic information for any given and possible purpose. Busby, J. Geographic analysis in GIS facilitates the study of various processes by developing and applying suitable models.

You should also determine whether. A database is a structured collection of data files. Let's explore all the aspects of a Geographic Information System a bit further. One of the key aspects of the development of Asset Management is data collection. Students will learn to conceptualize and implement geographic data management and analysis for research and application. Data management is not new—rather, it is something that all researchers already do. What are Metadata? Introduction to GIS 3 Figure. For many organizations, spatial data is managed within a specific department or group.

Emphasis will be placed on understanding how geospatial features are represented and captured as data and how these data can be managed, analyzed and presented using state-of-the-art GIS tools. Principle: open. The Data Management Program works to ensure key data are findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable and reproducible for the benefit of UC Davis researchers in all disciplines. Spatial data is also known as geospatial data, spatial information or geographic information.

Herzog has created a series of software applications to process GIS data quickly and accurately. What is Data Management? Data Management embraces the whole range of activities involved in the handling of data. Click on the filter symbol to the left of the attribute name, this will make the attribute name appear just below the name of the layer. Advanced data management theory, principles, and practices and their application to GIS services and programs.

Content focuses on the representation, acquisition, management, manipulation and analysis of spatial data. Work collaboratively with IDFG biologists and data managers to design, implement, and maintain databases and applications to support a variety of projects. Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired or its affiliates. Data management takes time and costs money in terms of software, hardware, and personnel. Demonstrate facility in the classification and analysis of geospatial data e. Functions of GIS include: data entry, data display, data management,.

GIS integrate the display capabilities of a computerized map with the information management tools of a spreadsheet. FHWA and the U. GIS applications in natural hazard management and development planning are Burrough, P. Learning Objective. GIS allows the creation of maps through automated mapping, data capture, and surveying analysis tools. Develops students' analytical skills using spatial technologies consisting of geographic information systems GIS , remote sensing and global positioning systems GPS as tools to gain knowledge of landscape form and function.

It integrates research from a variety of disciplines, including the geosciences, to supply a complete overview of SDSS technologies Answer : C. Why do we need Metadata? A database management system DBMS is a software package that allows for the creation, storage, maintenance, manipulation, seamlessly. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that these industries will grow faster than average in the coming years, providing a wealth of job opportunities for those interested in mapping technologies.

Quentin utilizes data collected on the Farallons using handheld GPS receivers to help the US Fish and Wildlife Service better understand and manage the myriad of biotic resources present on the refuge. In essence, GIS data models allow the user to create a representation of how the world looks. This paper demonstrates how GIS and information management principles were implemented on the Crossrail bored tunnels contract, and is an exceptional GIS success story.

Knowledge of GIS principles including spatial data types, data layers, basic geographic, analytic, and statistical functions; geographic coordinate systems and data formatting.

Geospatial data has a significantly different structure and function. The essential principles of map use and design, and spatial analysis are also included in this course. The objective of this section is to understand the basic properties of a relational database management system. Relational Database Management System - a database system made up of files with data elements in two-dimensional array rows and columns. This database management system has the capability to recombine data elements to form different relations resulting in a great flexibility of data usage.

Box About the interoperability standards used with GIS technology. In short, GIS education is our goal. Scope: Responds to emergency mapping and information requests. This GIS course builds on the introductory course and addresses principles and technologies for development and conversion of spatial data; including photogrammetry, surveying and geodesy, coordinate systems and transformations, and remote sensing.

This course equips students to address a range of issues related to GIS data acquisition, database design, system configuration, and project management. Students in the MGIS program must take 6 credits at the level and a minimum of 12 additional credits at the level or above. Every data source must have a defined Custodian in a business leadership role, who has overall responsibility for the accuracy, integrity, and security of those data. These same integration capabilities also make GIS useful for local-scale analyses, where many diverse types of data must be considered. He has conducted shornterm training programs on Remote Sensing and GIS Applications to Environmental Management to various Government officials and faculty of gid and polytechnic colleges of Andhra Pradesh.

A Data Management Specialist who employs GIS and master data management principles to maximize the value of business applications and data stores. For my beginners GIS course, the book neglects to introduce the basic principles. Uses global positioning systems 2. ArcMap is used to display, query, edit, create, and analyze your geographically referenced data. GIS - Geographic Information Systems or Science - is a piece of software that captures geographic data for the purpose of manipulation, viewing and analysis in whichever context and parameters the user desires or needs.

Courses within the Geospatial Intelligence Option and the Geodesign Option may be taken as elective courses. The Data Management toolbox provides a rich and varied collection of tools that are used to develop, manage, and maintain feature classes, datasets, layers, and raster data structures. A DBMS makes it possible for end users to create, read, update and delete data in a database. This means they not only receive an education from a top-ranked private university, they benefit from a combination of professional networking, academic rigor, and personal attention that few, if any, other GIS graduate programs have the ability to offer.

It could be a file or a set of files. Uses standard field mapping and checking methods 3. A geographic information system GIS is a technological tool for comprehending geography and making intelligent decisions. Excel Dynamic Solutions EDS is an independent, diverse consulting firm rooted in natural resources discovery and management, engineering project management, data technology and analytics, and subsequently rendering customer centric products and services from the aforementioned practices.

Principles and practices for developing and coordinating a broad -based GIS program with applications for District departments, public agencies, private clients, and the general public. Principles of cartographic design and how to apply them to produce high-quality geographic information system [GIS] based maps. It can be leveraged in desktop, server, or mobile environments. Data is flat unless it is used for Information Management. What you will learn. Join LinkedIn Summary. Relational Databases A relation is a finite set of tuples associated with a relation schema in a relational database that is, a 'table' where each row is a tuple and the columns are the things that are related Based on the data you manage, the size and technical capability of your staff, and the budget you have available, we tailor a system to meet your needs.

A database management system DBMS can be considered open because the simplicity and flexibility of the generic relational data model enable it to support a broad array of applications. The incumbent applies knowledge of data management principles, an understanding of the data life cycle, database design, and programming to develop and support viable application programs and systems to meet SODN needs.

Population and assurance, database maintenance, and use of GIS.

Individual Country/Area Datasets

Most of the new mapmakers do not have adequate training in mapping concepts and spatial analysis principles, and their maps are often improperly designed and do not communicate easily nor effectively. This series builds upon some basic principles that are often overlooked or underutilized when striving to create a successful GIS at an organization. Database management systems DBMS are. This is geographic information systems GIS work at the managerial level.

Such standards should promote the valid use and interpretation of data. Geographic information systems GIS are becoming more powerful, affordable and easier to use for small local governments looking for utility asset management solutions. What is Master Data Management? Master Data Management MDM is the technology, tools and processes that ensure master data is coordinated across the enterprise. Management of Geospatial information including importing, QC, formatting, publishing, exporting and conditioning data; Production of cartographic documents and maps; Conduct of complex regional geospatial studies; Preparation of GIS workflows, procedures and standards.

Textbook of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems by Anji Reddy and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at. Authors; Authors and affiliations. We appreciate your patience as we seek a new colleague to support Northeastern's data analysis and visualization needs. As the number of functions increased, the need for an organizing principle became clear. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries user-created searches , analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations.

An overview of the Data Management toolbox. Digitizes 2. The Principles and Recommendations for. Undergraduate Geographic Information Science Minor. Essentials of Geographic Information Systems provides the foundations for learning GIS, but readers are encouraged to construct their own individual frameworks of GIS knowledge. Technology, hardware and software, and current applications and practices related to data platforms such as GIS. Geographic Information Systems GIS approach to solving spatial problems and managing natural resources, including the acquisition, management, manipulation, analysis, and mapping of spatial and non-spatial databases; identification of natural and relevant features from various data sources; integration of relevant technologies and data; extensive use of GIS software to solve real-world problems.

GIS is a computer-based information system that enables capture, modeling, manipulation, retrieval, analysis and presentation of geographically referenced data. Strong organizational, time management, attention to detail and analytical skills. Duties of the Position: - Ensuring proper management of all data in the local office. A geodatabase stores GIS data in a central location for easy access and management.