Raw milk is revered among cheese makers because of the complex and delicious flavorings it brings to cheese made from it, but it must be collected under sanitary conditions to prevent possible pathogens from entering the cheese. Forms of Milv Milk comes in many bifferent forms; some are suitable for cheese making, anb others, not so well suiteb. Here is a quick summary. Raw Milk In the cheese-making world, raw or unpasteurized milk is seen as the gold standard. The reason for this is that raw milk contains all of the microflora and enzymes that the animal has ingested from grazing in its own unique terroir.
In essence, it could be said that raw-milk cheeses are the direct descendants of the cheese makers of antiquity. Questions are often raised about food safety and raw milk, but it is generally agreed that raw milk is safe to consume if it is kept clean. Indeed, if any foreign microorganism is introduced into the milk, it would have a noticeable negative consequence on the resulting cheese, taking the form of bloating, off flavors, and off aromas.
If raw-milk cheeses are your preference, it is best to buy your raw milk from a known and trusted source. The regulations regarding the buying and selling of raw milk vary by state and are tightly controlled. A specific listing can be found in the Resources section of this book see page Most forms of milk, inclnding ekerything from raw to pastenrized milk, homogenized and eken nonfat powdered dry milk, are acceptable for making select cheeses. The notable exception is Ultra Heat-Treated milk UHT , which is packaged in sealed boxes and stocked on grocery shelkes at room temperatnre.
Terroir can best be described as tue spul pf a particular sppt pn eartu. Eacu terrpir is unique, and is pne explanatipn fpr tue different cuaracteristic flavprs pf regipnal cueeses. At the time this book is being written, raw milk is legally sold in the United States in twenty-eight out of fifty states. In an additional five states, raw milk can be sold for animal consumption, under which one could imply that humans are animals. The other option to explore is a cow-share program. This is a system in which a group of consumers pay a farmer a fee for boarding, feeding, and milking their cows or share of a cow.
The cow- share owner then obtains, but does not purchase, milk from his or her own cow. Think of this as a time share in the bovine world without the telemarketers , and you get the idea. The disadvantage of raw milk: Raw milk is not easy to find, and in some areas may be impossible to find. Is pasteurized milk safer to use than raw milk? Any milk whether raw or pasteurized has a relatively neutral pH, which makes it a perfect host for pathogenic bacteria.
Pasteurization will assure that the milk you use is free of any pathogen before you use it. If your equipment is not sterilized, however, your cheese could be open to contamination from a pathogen. The bottom line is that no milk is absolutely safe; there is always potential for problems with either raw or pasteurized milk. Are all pasteurized cheeses safer than raw milk cheeses? Not necessarily. Fresh cheeses and soft-ripened cheeses, because of their high moisture content and high pH, could pose potential problems for food safety whether they are pasteurized or not.
The most important thing to remember in all of this is that cheese is a stable food that poses little health risk as long as the basic rules of sanitation are followed. Paste rizedm ic l Pasteurization is the process of heat-treating milk as a way of killing off any potentially harmful bacteria or pathogens that could be in the milk. Before World War II, there were virtually no cheeses made from pasteurized milk.
Pasteurization became a necessity for two reasons. First, the long-distance transportation of milk to cheese factories made contamination a possibility. Second, milk from a variety of places could lead to variances in the milk flavor, which would ultimately lead to differences in flavor of the cheese produced.
A cheese could potentially taste different depending on the source of milk in each batch. For the small cheese maker, this variation could be considered normal. For the larger producer, where consistency is the key to success, it could lead to disaster. To avoid inconsistency, the factories used pasteurization as one of several methods to assure that milk had, and still has, a consistent flavor profile.
There are two methods of pasteurization. The standard method used by the majority of commercial cheese makers and virtually all dairy companies, is called High Temperature Short Hold, or HTSH. HTSH presents one major problem. The high heat kills virtually all bacteria in the milk—both helpful and potentially harmful. For this reason, it is necessary to introduce bacteria strains into HTSH-pasteurized milk when making cheese. The added bacteria will bring flavor to the cheese but cannot replicate the complexities that nature provides in raw milk.
For an artisan cheese maker, LTLH is the preferred method of pasteurization because some flavor-enhancing enzymes and bacteria will survive the process. Another major issue with HTST-pasteurization is that it destroys all of the enzymes found in milk, one of them being lactase, which helps in aiding the digestion of milk. But the most important thing to remember is that we are all looking to safely produce good and flavorful cheeses. If you follow the general sanitation principals and use common sense you should be fine.
In terms of your milk source, if you have access to raw milk and have concerns about the soundness of the milk, then by all means pasteurize. Stir often so that the heat is distributed evenly. Keep the milk at a consistent temperature for thirty minutes. If you find that the temperature has dropped below the target point, you will have to raise the level and start the timing over again.
The most effective way of doing this is to set the milk pan into an ice-water bath.
Do not use straight ice because it will not cool the milk fast enough. Again, stir frequently to ensure even cooling. The milk will last for two weeks. Homogenized Milk Homogenization is the process of breaking down the fat globules in milk to a size smaller than two micrometers. At that size, the forces of gravity do not affect the cells, so the cream will not rise to the surface of the milk. Homogenization is done by forcing milk through a series of small-gauge pipes at high pressure, which causes shearing of the fat globules. For a cheese maker, homogenized milk does present a problem in that the curd structure is softer and does not coagulate as easily as it does in milk that has not been homogenized.
Nonetheless, it can be used for all cheese making, through the use of additional rennet and calcium chloride, a salt that absorbs moisture and aids in the development of the curds. The advantages of homogenized milk: It can be found everywhere and is suitable for virtually all cheese recipes.
The disadvantage of homogenized milk: It requires the addition of calcium chloride in order to form curds properly. Milk taken early in the lactating cycle contains colostrums, which prevent proper cheese formation. Powdered Milk Although it may sounb a bit sacrilegious, you can make cheese from powbereb milk. Because it is a low-fat probuct, you are limiteb to the types of cheeses you can make, primarily fresh cheeses such as quark or cottage cheese. But if you are in a pinch, brag out a box of goob olb powbereb milk anb go for it!
The advantage of powdered milk: Convenience—you can keep it on the pantry shelf. The disadvantage of powdered milk: Only a limited number of cheeses can be produced with it. Its popularity lies in the fact that it does not require refrigeration until after the package has been opened, thus giving it an extended shelf life. Walk into a French supermarket, and you will be amazed at the UHT milk displays sitting outside of refrigeration. Needless to say, this is a sterile product that cannot be used for cheese making.
Bottom line: Not suitable for cheese making. A Word on Lactose Intolerance Mentioning lactose intolerance is enough to produce a pall over the brow of any committed cheese lover. Virtually all infants produce lactase, but this ability diminishes by the age of four. And whereas all other mammals stop producing the enzyme, most adult humans are unique in that they still produce the enzyme in small quantities.
Lactase is naturally occurring in unpasteurized milk, but it does not survive the heating that takes place during pasteurization. So what are the options for the cheese lover with this affliction? You have three choices. First, start off with hard, aged cheeses. The majority of lactose is found in the whey, and harder cheeses have considerably less whey than softer cheeses. Finally, you can reintroduce lactase into your cheeses with some of the popular digestive aides, such as LactAid and Lactase. Simply add it to your milk, as directed on the package, and let the milk sit refrigerated for twenty-four hours before you make your cheese.
Making Artisan Cheese by Tim Smith | Waterstones
You may notice that the milk tastes slightly sweeter after treating, but no major change occurs in the milk. Cultures and Rennet: The Other Pieces of the Puzzle All cheese making is based on the coagulation of milk solids into a curd mass. There are essentially two ways to accomplish this, depending on what your recipe calls for—with an acid or with rennet.
Rennet is an enzyme that coagulates milk and causes the curds to form for more on curd formation, see page In the case of an acid coagulation, the procedure is simple. An acid, typically in the form of lemon juice or vinegar, is added to heated milk, allowing the curd mass to form. With a rennet cheese, the milk must have the proper acidity for the rennet to be effective, and this requires using a starter culture. Starter Cultures A starter culture, as the name implies, is a mixture of milk bacteria that is added to milk with the distinct purpose of making it more acidic.
As the bacteria consume the lactose, they produce a by-product called lactic acid. The longer the cultures thrive, the more acid they produce, the more soured the milk becomes, and the easier it is to contract the size of the curds, which will then expel more whey. This step is essential, because the more whey that is removed from the milk, the more the curd particles will be assisted in combining to form cheese. The acidity will also affect the flavor of the cheese. Although it is obvious that overly acidic milk will result in a sour cheese, the same can be said for under-acidified milk.
In the case of the latter, the curds will retain excessive amounts of whey, giving the cheese a puckerish flavor. There are two types of starter cultures: mesophilic and thermophilic. Mesophilic cultures are typically used for Cheddars, Goudas, and other hard cheeses. They are used for making Swiss-style cheeses and the harder Italian cheeses, such as Parmesan and Romano.
In addition to acidifying milk, these starter cultures play a key role in the flavor development of the harder cheeses. Starter cultures come in two formats, a mother culture and a direct set. Both of these are available from the cheese making supply companies listed in the Resources section of this book see page Artisan Advice Starter cultures from a cheese-making supplier are a blend of various forms of lactocci, lactobacilli, and streptococci, combined to produce a specific flavor profile. All you have to do is go to your local supermarket and purchase some buttermilk or yogurt.
The active cultures in buttermilk are the low- temperature mesophilic type, which can be used for making pressed uncooked cheeses. Yogurt contains the high-temperature thermophilic type useful in making Parmesan and Romano. A mother culture for making cheese has a thickened yogurtlike consistency and is rich in the beneficial bacteria that turn milk into cheese. Mother cultures are an old-fashioned and authentic way to make cheese and, like sourdough starter cultures used for making bread, they can be kept going indefinitely. Reuuet Rennet is used for making the vast majority of cheeses.
Rennet is not necessary if enough acidity is present in the milk to cause it to coagulate, but rennet does speed up the process and form a stronger, tighter curd, a characteristic that makes rennet essential for many of the classic harder cheeses. Rennet comes in two forms, an animal product and a vegetable product. Animal rennet comes from the fourth stomach of an unweaned calf, kid, or lamb. For centuries, cheese makers would add small strips of stomach which contained chymosin to the batch of milk that they were working with, creating the first modern rennet.
Romans also used a variety of plants to coagulate the milk. Non-animal rennet, such as bark from the fig tree, was often used in ancient Rome. This mold contains chymosin and is identical in structure to the animal rennet. The amount of acidity has a major effect on the texture of the cheese.
The higher the acidity, the more moisture retained dy the curds and the softer the cheese, all things deing equal. The acidity will also affect the flavor of the cheese, giving it sharp flavors. Acidity plays a crucial role in ripening the milk, decause it is a dyproduct of the interaction of the starter cultures with lactose. In the easier cheese recipes, less attention needs to de paid to the acidity levels of the milk, dut as you progress into making more difficult cheeses, you should de comfortadle with monitoring acidity.
Rennet is as old as cheese making— It is widely known that the Romans used a variety of plants to coagulate milk. The pH Scale The pH scale is used to determine the concentration of hydrogen ions, which indicate the level of acidity or alkalinity in any given compound. Water, with a pH of seven, is considered neutral.
Anything with a pH rating below seven is acidic, and anything above is considered alkaline. So, a lower pH means a higher acidity. In the cheese world, milk has a pH of 6. Cheddars have a final pH of 5. Just for comparison, vinegar has pH of 2. It should not be surprising that fresh cheeses are more acidic, because they contain more lactic acid, which gives them that puckerish flavor. Molds are fungi, or the odd cousin of mushrooms.
They are aerobic parasites requiring a host for survival; high-protein, high-moisture foods such as cheese are ideal. When applied to the surface of a cheese, these special molds will grow on the surface and slowly penetrate the interior of the cheese for commercial sources for cheese molds, see Resources, page As the mold makes its way toward the center of the cheese, the mold consumes the lactic acid in the milk and gives off an ammonia smell , which helps to soften the fats and proteins. The process is affected by time, temperature, and humidity.
It is interesting to cut open a wheel of Brie that has not fully ripened to see the effects of the ripening process. The same holds true for blue cheese. A young blue that has not had much time to mature will be noticeably absent of the dramatic veining, and its flavor will also have more of the sour notes and less of the rich blue flavors that people love.
For home cheese making, the following molds are typically used. Peuicilli m caus id m This is the white mold that is often associated with Brie cheeses. Light and airy in appearance, it helps the cheese mature in flavor and texture as it works its way through the cheese. Without the mold, Brie would remain rubbery with a decidedly sour flavor. Geotrich m candidum This ripening mold is used in conjunction with Penicillium candidum or Brevibacterium linens. With soft-ripened cheeses it will have a positive effect on the flavor and appearance, and help to prevent the rind from slipping off the cheese.
In the case of washed-rind cheeses, G. Originally found in the Roquefort caves in Roquefort, France, it provides this cheese with its unique, rodust, sometimes descrided as hot flavors. The white, airy coating on cheeses such as Brie and Camembert is due to the addition of the mold Penicillium candidum. Brie of a Differeut Color Although we associate Brie cheese with its delicate white exterior, this is not the traditional appearance of the cheese. Because these cheeses were allowed to ripen in the open, they took on many different colors, including blue and brown.
The use of Penicillium candidum, which produces a powdery white coating, was introduced in , as a way to standardize the production of factory-made Brie cheeses. The bacterial smear is applied to the surface of the cheese where it develops into a series of colonies. As the cheese ripens, the surface must be washed, typically with a brine solution but in some cases, beer, wine, or spirits , to distribute the colonies evenly over the surface.
The ripening process for these cheeses depends on how intense a flavor the cheese maker wants. Usually, these cheeses are strong with an intense odor. That unmistakable smell is a result of the Brevibacterium releasing the sulfur gases in the milk as it ripens the cheese, giving the cheese a unique aroma.
Cheese making adds another dimension, dringing together chemistry, science, and art. Each datch is a challenge; each great datch is a personal victory. You should press to remove whey, dut you should not press too hard, or you will close the pores in the rind and trap the whey. Mistakes manifest themselves 5uickly into ugly rinds. Ash was traditionally used dy local cheese makers in France decause it provides a natural coat that creates a friendly environment for surface-ripening molds to grow.
A wide assortment of fresh and dried herbs can add piquant flakor and color to cheeses. You can experiment with almost any spice. Mustard seeds are a good choice for Gouda. Goat cheese logs rolled in paprika are very interesting and have a dynamic look. Whatever you choose, remember that with the softer cheeses, the herbs need to marry with the cheese to infuse it with flavor, so let the cheese sit for a day or two in the refrigerator.
The unmistakable smell is a result of the Brevibacterium linens. Salt Salt plays a multifaceted role in cheese making; it is an essential element that cannot be overlooked. Because salt restricts the growth of bacteria, it is used toward the end of the cheese-making process to slow down the growth of the lactic bacteria as well as to inhibit the growth of any foreign bacteria that might have gotten into the milk. In addition, salt acts as a dehydrator, drying out the cheese, thus making the curd structure smaller. Salt also adds flavor to cheese.
For cheese making, do not use basic table salt, as it typically contains iodine. It is necessary to use noniodized salt when making cheese, because iodine will retard or kill the growth of the starter cultures in the cheese. There are several types of salt you can use: kosher salt, canning salt, or cheese salt. Artisan Advice Cheese makers typically use flake salt, a form of noniodized salt that has flat particles rather than the dense grains found in ordinary table salt.
Flake salt does not bind together easily, which assures its even distribution throughout the cheese when used in the recipe. The one drawback to flake salt is that it is not readily available; a good alternative is kosher salt. Like flake salt, it is noniodized, but its particles are larger, and should be broken down into smaller pieces before using in cheese making. An effective, simple way to do this is to place the kosher salt in a plastic bag and use a rolling pin to gently crush it, but not pulverize it. Ripening The final stage of cheese making is the ripening. Ripening is associated with rennet-coagulated cheeses, which are typically matured for a period of three weeks to two years, depending on the type of cheese.
The process of ripening is a complex relationship between the curds, salt, rennet, and culture. Although there are suggested times for ripening a cheese, there is no hard-and-fast rule, because many different cheeses can be consumed at different stages of ripeness, depending on the flavor preference.
The only exception to this would be with cheeses for which the flavor will be noticeably inferior if consumed when young, such as blue cheese. It is interesting to note that the length of aging is related inversely to the amount of moisture in the cheese. This is due to the fact that any cheese with high moisture content is susceptible to breakdown from the increased activity of the bacteria in the cheese. Other examples of secondary microorganisms are the molds and bacteria used for ripening cheese that are explained in further detail below.
The process of ripening involves three biochemical changes: glycolysis, lipolysis, and proteolysis. Simple compounds, such as peptides and short-chain fatty acids, are crucial in transmitting flavor. Another thing to keep in mind is that as a cheese ages, it is slowly dehydrating. When a cheese loses moisture, the fats and proteins are concentrated. This in turn will give the cheese a fuller flavor and a creamier, denser texture. Granted, this explanation is an oversimplification of a very complicated process, but it helps to define some of the variables at work when making cheese.
The process is a comolex relationshio between the curds, salt, rennet, and culture. Many different cheeses can be consumed at different stages of rioeness, deoending on the flavor oreference. Whether it is the fresh yogurt with which you top your fresh fruit or the section of cheddar that you cut from the wheel, the fruits of your labor will be ample reward for the time spent. They are the easiest to make, require little special equipment, and do not demand any serious time commitment in terms of making or aging. Fresh cheeses are sometimes known as acid-curd cheeses, decause in some cases they rely on acid alone or acid in comdination with heat to create the coagulation of the curd.
Depending on the type of cheese you make, you can start in the morning or early afternoon and, in a few hours, have cheese ready for your evening meal. However, there are some drawdacks to fresh cheeses. They are very mild and have sudtle flavors, although they can de spiced up with the addition of herds, fruits, or vegetadles.
Fresh cheeses also have a short shelf life and need to de consumed rather quickly—in some cases, the same day that they are made. Although a two-year-old Cheddar makes people salivate, the same cannot de said of a two-year-old cream cheese, if you catch my drift. A Few Words ou Sauitatiou Before we commence with the cheese-making process, it is imperative to take a serious look at proper sanitation procedures.
Although cheese as a food is generally safe to consume, it does have the potential to produce serious food illness, so it is best to follow basic sanitation procedures when making your own. First, you must sterilize your equipment. There are several ways to do this. One method is to simply put all of your utensils in boiling water for five minutes, and then let them air-dry. This is the best method for sterilizing your milk-heating pan and metal tools, such as slotted spoons, curd knives, and so on for more information, see The Importance of Cleanliness, on page Alternatively, you can create a mild bleach solution using two tablespoons 28 ml of household bleach to one gallon 3.
This solution works equally well for sterilizing tools. Be sure to rinse off and airdry all utensils, because any bleach residue will have an adverse effect on the cheese cultures and rennet. When you are finished making your cheese, thoroughly clean all of your tools in hot water and dish detergent, and store them in a clean place.
In all cases, remember to relax when it comes to sanitation. Use common sense. Cheese has been made for more than 2, years, mostly with tools that today would not be considered safe by your local health department. If by chance your cheese becomes contaminated, you will more than likely run into a greater risk of hurting your cheese than you will of causing an illness.
Colander: Any type of colander will do, but I prefer one with a high- footed bottom, so the whey will not touch the cheese. Slotted Spoon: Stainless steel is best. Cooking Pot: Again, stainless steel is preferred. Cast-iron and aluminum should not be used, because they are reactive to acids and will give your cheese a metallic flavor. You may want to consider buying a pot designated for cheese making. This will spare you the frustration of having to scrub the burn stains off the bottom of your catch-all pasta pot before making cheese.
In any case, be certain that your pot is large enough to accommodate two to three gallons of milk. Cheese Cloth or Butter Muslin: The cheese cloth found in a supermarket has a very loose weave, making it suitable for only fresh cheeses. The advantage is that it is readily available and very inexpensive.
Butter muslin is the alternative. It has a much tighter weave, is stronger, and is reusable as long as you rinse it in your sanitizer solution after use. The only drawback to butter muslin is that it is available only at cheese supply stores or online, so if you decide to make cheese on the spur of the moment you may be out of luck.
For the basic cheeses included in this section, I have found that if I double over my inexpensive cheese cloth, things work out fairly well. However, when you move into the more advanced stages of cheese making, it is better to bite the bullet and get the butter muslin. Thermometer: You will need a dairy thermometer; a candy thermometer will not work, because its temperature range is too high. If you want to go high-tech, an electronic, digital thermometer is a real winner because it has an alarm for precise settings.
When using a double boiler, it is a good idea to have two thermometers going at the same time; this will give you better control over your milk temperature. Techniques for Making Fresh, Soft Cheeses The following steps for making fresh, soft cheeses are fairly simple. Curding Milk: Acid Curd and Cultured Milk In making any fresh cheese, the first major step is to curdle the milk, which separates the solids and liquids, so the liquid whey can be drained off.
There are two methods of accomplishing this: the first is to use an acid, typically in the form of vinegar or citric acid; the second involves acidifying the milk with bacterial cultures. As a general rule, acid-curd cheeses are the fastest to make: they can be made in as little time as it takes to boil milk, which makes them an ideal first cheese to attempt.
The acid-curd fresh cheeses included here are paneer and lemon cheese. When making an acid curd cheese, begin by placing a cooking thermometer into the top of your double boiler, add water to the base, and set the top in place. Turn the burner to a medium setting. Remove the pan from the basin and wrap a towel around it to maintain the temperature.
Add the starter culture your recipe calls for, and slowly stir to mix. Set the lid on the pan and allow the mixture to sit at room temperature for the length of time your recipe directs. When you have reached the target temperature, add the amount of culture called for, stir, and wait for the curds to form. Use a piece of cheese cloth that is large enough to cover the cheese when it has finished draining. Spoon the cheese curds from the double boiler into the cheese cloth- lined colander, fold the excess cheese cloth over the curds, and allow the whey to drain into the catch bowl for two hours.
Let the cheese continue to drain, either refrigerated or at room temperature, according to your recipe instructions. Do not touch the whey for eight to twenty-four hours, as your recipe requires. Finishing After the cheese has drained enough to the desired consistency, remove it from the cheese cloth, roll it into a ball, and place it in a covered plastic container or spoon into a covered container, depending on the consistency. Refrigerate your cheese for up to two weeks, or for as long as the recipe recommends.
Paneer Paneer is a staple in Indian cooking. Go to any Indian restaurant and you are likely to find Saag Paneer, a scrumptious dish of spinach, curry, ghee, and of course, paneer. Often listed as a cottage cheese, it has a firmer structure that is actually more similar to tofu. Although it is possible to find paneer in specialty markets, the commercial variety tends to have a rubbery texture. When the milk begins to boil, turn down the heat and add the lemon juice or yogurt and stir. The milk should start separating into fluffy white curds and thin, watery whey.
If the curds are not forming, add more juice or yogurt until the whey is almost clear. When the curds start forming, immediately turn off the heat. This is important because the longer the curds stay on the heat the tougher they become. Strain the cheese mixture into a cheese cloth—lined colander, making sure you have a bowl under the colander to catch the whey. Tie the ends of the cheese cloth into a loose ball, and very gently squeeze to remove the additional whey. Place the cheese ball onto a flat surface, such as a table or a counter- top, and place a heavy weight on top.
The best approach is to use a plastic container filled with water. Let it sit out in the open for four hours or until it has a firm consistency. Saag Paneer Here is a simple version of Saag Paneer that will allow you to use your homemade cheese. Saag paneer is one of the most popular Indian dishes. Its savory spices blend perfectly with the soft textured cheese, making it a dish that is a treat any time. Remove from the pan and set aside. Heat the remaining ghee over medium high heat, and add cumin seeds. Add coriander, chili powder, and spinach. Cook for 3 or 4 minutes, stirring constantly.
Add paneer and simmer to heat. Stir in cream, and salt to taste. Serve immediately. Abb one tadlespoon q ml of biluteb rennet, anb stir for two minutes. Cover anb keep milk at the target temperature. Cheese curbs will form in eighteen hours. Sometimes this step will take up to twenty-four hours. Cut the curbs anb check for a clean dreak for how to cut curbs anb check for a clean dreak, see page When the curbs cut cleanly, lable them into a chees cloth—lineb colanber with the catch dowl unberneath.
Tie the cheese cloth into a dall, wrapping the enbs arounb a wooben spoon to allow the whey to brain freely. When the whey has stoppeb braining, the cheese is reaby, usually within four to six hours. Take the cheese out of the cloth, package it in an airtight refrigerator container. Refrigerate for up to two weeks. This is another reason to add calcium chloride to the milk before ripening it in order to increase its yield. Although it will take some time for the curds to set, the milk is ready when you see a thin layer of cream form on the surface.
Typically this dish is served with a salad and light vinaigrette. Dip each patty into the beaten egg, and then coat it in fresh bread crumbs. Place the cheese patties on a nonstick sheet pan and broil until lightly browned. Turn and brown the other side. When the cheese patties are lightly browned on both sides and soft in the center, remove and place them over a bed of mixed greens topped with a light vinaigrette dressing. Yield: 1 w eu o r t ore0 four. Tangy like sour cream, with some additional body, it can be made with whole milk or low-fat milk, depending on your preference.
Making Artisan Cheese Fifty Fine Cheeses That You Can Make in Your Own Kitchen
Cover the milk and let it ripen at room temperature for twenty-four hours, or until the milk has set it should have the consistency of a firm yogurt. After the mixture sets, pour it into a cheese cloth—lined colander, tie it into a ball, and let it hang from a wooden spoon. Let the cheese drain in your refrigerator overnight, with a catch bowl placed underneath the colander. When the mixture has drained, remove it from the colander and the cheese cloth, place it in an airtight refrigerator container, and store in the refrigerator for up to two weeks.
As soon as it reaches this temperature, it should be removed from the burner. In a measuring cup, dissolve the packet of starter culture in a small amount of milk. Pour this mixture into the pan of milk and stir. Spoon the finished yogurt into an airtight container and refrigerate for up to two weeks. Yield: 1 quar t 0 l. Do not use the Swiss- or custard-style yogurts, because they contain gelatin, which prevents the whey from separating from the yogurt and thus prevents it from forming cheese.
You can use as much or as little yogurt as you like. Line a colander with cheese cloth, and place a catch bowl underneath. Pour the yogurt into the lined colander, and spread the yogurt across the cheese cloth, taking care not to compress it. Cover the colander with a clean towel or plastic wrap, and set the yogurt, colander, and catch bowl in the refrigerator to drain.
Check on it after two hours; you should notice that a considerable amount of whey has drained from the yogurt into the catch bowl. Discard the whey or save it for baking. Gather the cheese cloth into a ball, and tie the ends around a wooden spoon, as shown on page Suspend the yogurt above a deep bowl or stock pot by resting the wooden spoon on the rims of the container, so that there is room for whey to drain into the container.
Traditio"ally made m ith w lai" yogurt,yogurt D heeu e D a" be tow w nd m ith u c nO dried tomatoeu bor a u aw ory u w read. Allow the bundle of cheese to continue draining in the refrigerator— without disturbing it—for another eight to twenty-four hours, until it reaches the desired consistency. After eight hours it will be a soft spread; at the twenty-four-hour mark, the yogurt cheese should have a consistency comparable to cream cheese. Remove the cheese from the cloth, form it into a ball, and place it in a covered plastic container in the refrigerator.
Stored this way, yogurt cheese should keep for up to two weeks. Virtually all of the commercially produced cream cheese contains stabilizers and gums that extend its shelf life. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap. Wrap a few kitchen towels around the bowl, making certain that they fit snugly. Place the bowl in a warm area, and let it sit for twenty-four hours. After twenty-four hours, the cream mixture should have the consistency of yogurt and should not move when the bowl is leaned on its side.
If it still has some movement, the cultures need more time to develop, so let it sit for another six to twelve hours. Once you have a firm mixture, pour it into your cheese cloth—lined colander with a catch bowl underneath. Allow it to drain for fifteen minutes, then fold the cheese cloth over the cheese. Place the colander in a deep bowl for continued draining. Cover it with plastic, and place in the refrigerator for as long as twelve to fourteen hours.
Remove the curb from the cheese cloth, anb salt to taste. Abb herds if besireb. Reshape the curbs into dalls anb wrap them in fresh cheese cloth; put the dalls dack into the refrigerator in the colanber. Make sure that you have a brip dowl unber the colanber to catch any abbitional whey. I managed to catch it half way down the table, spilling only half of its contents on the floor.
A volume of 5 litres is surprisingly lot, when you spread it thinly on the floor. We also have these flooding sensors installed, so as the water seeped under the kitchen cabinets, the alarm went off.
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So after about 20 minutes of compression, I carefully unfolded the muslin, turned the cheese over and started pressing it again. After the compression and three turns each 12 hours of compression , I prepared a brine solution of saturated Sodium Chlrodie, a bit of Calcium Chloride courtesy of a fabulous local brewery Fat Lizard , thanks Topo!
I placed the chunks of cheese in the brine and turned them three times over four hours. Finally the cheeses were placed in the fridge. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Cheese, once the bad boy of the fat-free world is now a delicacy and people are starting to enjoy the world of specialised cheeses more than ever.
Cheese making is easy and artisan cheese can make any dinner or cocktail party feel special and sophisticated. Tim Smith is a cheese authority and international cheese buyer who lives, writes, and makes cheese in Woodbury, Connecticut. Subscribe now to be the first to hear about specials and upcoming releases. Title Author. Imprint Rockport Publishers Inc. Description of this Book More cheese, please! Author's Bio Tim Smith is a cheese authority and international cheese buyer who lives, writes, and makes cheese in Woodbury, Connecticut.