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Enviado por Katiuscia Costa flag Denunciar. International Labour Organization, Forced Labour: Time for Action. International Organization for Migration. Kangaspunta, Kristiina. Forum on Crime and Society. Korvinus, Anna G. Developing Better Indicators of Human Trafficking. Brown Journal of World Afairs. Fall , pp.

Lehti, Martti and Kauko Aromaa. Lehti, Martti. Trafficking in Women and Children in Europe. Lesko, Vera and Entela Avdulaj The Grls and the Trafficking. Vlora: The Hearth. Limanowska, Barbara. The Reconnecting Homeless Youth Act of 15 the most recent amendment to the original authorizing legislation, the Runaway Youth Act of directs grantees to collect, maintain, and provide to the Department of Health and Human Services, to the maximum extent possible, statistical data on the youth served by each of the three programs.

The information submitted to RHYMIS includes demographic characteristics of youth served, types of services provided, living arrangements prior to entering the program, and aftercare plans upon exit from the program. A child or adolescent may enter a program, receive services, exit the program, and then subsequently reenter the program. An accurate, current national estimate of homeless and runaway youth does not exist. Available data sources, such as RHYMIS, likely underrepresent the actual number of children and adolescents who are homeless or living in unstable housing.

This population of youth is highly vulnerable to significant health risks, including survival sex, sexually transmitted infections, substance abuse, depression, and suicide Kaestle, RHYMIS has the advantage of offering access to a portion of a difficult-to-reach population: homeless and runaway youth.

Access to this population is crucial for improved estimation of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States. First, as noted above, RHYMIS does not offer a representative accounting of all homeless and runaway youth, which limits its utility for estimating commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States.

To the extent that minors who are victims of these crimes do not obtain services that report to RHYMIS, those minors will not be represented in these data. The same individual may obtain services multiple times for multiple incidents of commercial sexual exploitation or sex trafficking. While extant research documents the vulnerability and victimization of runaway, thrown-away, and homeless children and adolescents, findings also indicate that many who are at risk and many who are being victimized have not run away and are not homeless.

The ACE Study was a longitudinal study that examined the impact of early life experiences on future health risk behaviors. Between and , more than 17, individuals who underwent a comprehensive physical examination voluntarily completed anonymous surveys regarding childhood experiences, if any, with abuse emotional, sexual, and physical , household dysfunction e. The major findings of the ACE Study suggest that the higher the ACE score, the greater is the risk for developing behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of illness, death, and poor social outcomes in adulthood, including alcoholism, drug abuse, and depression Anda et al.

For example, victims of childhood sexual abuse are more than twice as likely to attempt suicide and are at a significantly higher risk for interpersonal problems than adults who did not experience such abuse Dube et al. CDC and Kaiser Permanente continue to track the health and social outcomes of the study participants in order to assess the associations with earlier adverse childhood experiences. For example, the sample comprised In addition, all participants were over the age of 18, and nearly half were over age 60 CDC, a. The limitations of the ACE Study mirror those of Add Health: The study is not accepting new participants, and there is no evidence of plans to contact original participants for future waves of questions.

A second issue is that the study did not gather data specifically on the commercial sexual exploitation or sex trafficking of minors. Since these crimes are forms of child sexual abuse, however, the study findings regarding the association between child sexual abuse and increased risk for poor health and social outcomes in adulthood likely are applicable to these victims of exploitation. As discussed in Chapter 3 of this report, the adverse childhood experiences tracked by the ACE Study are believed to be risk factors for commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors; therefore, child and adolescent victims of these crimes are likely at increased risk for the poor health and social outcomes identified by the ACE Study and related research.

The information collected and analyzed. All jurisdictions voluntarily submit agency-level data to NCANDS, and nearly all states submit case-level data, referred to as the Child File, which tracks information for a specific child. Federal agencies use the NCANDS data to inform policies relating to child abuse and neglect, and the data also are available to independent researchers.

In FY , approximately 3. Of those referrals, 1. Victims of child abuse and neglect are at increased risk for commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking. NCANDS therefore provides an opportunity to identify risk, as well as potential for prevention and intervention. Like all the data sources discussed here, NCANDS has advantages and disadvantages for purposes of measuring commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States. An important advantage is that the data are based on child abuse and neglect reports and capture experiences of all children and adolescents, regardless of whether they are in school, living in a housing unit, or homeless.

A limitation of the data pertains to dependence on the perception of a reporter. The data are focused on child abuse and neglect, so to the extent that a person witnessing the maltreatment mistakes a child or adolescent for an adult, the incident may go unreported. This issue is problematic for commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors as research shows that many of the young people being exploited and trafficked appear older than A second limitation is that the system gathers data only on acts committed by a parent or caretaker. While there is evidence that parents and caretakers commit acts of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking involving their own children, evidence also suggests that these crimes often are committed by persons other than parents and caretakers.

Estimates of a social problem are important. They inform interested parties about the extent of the problem, they lead to attention to the need to address the problem and the funding required to do so, and they offer a baseline for evaluating policies. In addition, estimates provide information for policy makers, identify the need for education, point to where assistance is needed, and help direct assistance toward victimized populations.

As this chapter has explained, however, generating crime estimates is not an easy task and in some cases is extraordinarily difficult. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States are social problems that are characterized by numerous challenges to estimation. The population of interest is difficult to identify and locate and at times uncooperative.

The sampling strategies available for estimating these problems are limited. Consensus is lacking on the definitions of the problems.


Measurement of the problems is costly, time-consuming, and extremely difficult. It is not surprising, then, that extant estimates are imperfect. Best notes that all statistics are imperfect, but some are less perfect than others. This is an important point. First, it highlights the costs of basing decisions on poor estimates. If an estimate is wildly inaccurate and grossly inflates the extent of a problem, scarce resources time and money will be misallocated, and other, more prevalent problems will go unaddressed.

While identifying the limitations of an estimate is easy, identifying what is needed to improve it is more difficult. Certainly, the use of a probability sample of all minors in the United States would be useful, but it may not be feasible for many reasons. At some point, one must ask whether the available national estimates are good enough. Do extant estimates suggest that the problems are large enough to warrant attention and resources? Would slightly higher estimates than those already obtained change the approach to the problems or alter their importance? Is there value in seeking more perfect estimates in an environment of scarce resources?

The committee identified two potential opportunities to enhance measurement and understanding of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States: 1 leverage existing measurement efforts that collect data on related issues or populations, and 2 shift focus and resources from exclusively national-level counting to more targeted counting.

Although existing non-criminal justice measurement efforts do not currently collect data on commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking, a. Additional research would be needed to determine specific questions to add to the various data collection efforts. While changes to current data collection efforts could enhance measurement and understanding of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States, as discussed earlier, these efforts would still yield insufficient estimates of these problems.

As noted in this chapter, efforts to estimate the overall occurrence of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States have been largely unsuccessful given the difficulties inherent in measuring these crimes. As a result, insufficient attention, research, and resources have been devoted to resolving these problems.

It is the position of the committee that a continued focus on obtaining better national incidence and prevalence estimates of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States may detract from progress on other important aspects of these problems. Other fields of research and practice demonstrate that it is possible to make progress on issues even in the absence of strong evidence on their nature and extent. For example, the scope and severity of sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and child abuse and neglect were viewed with skepticism and were characterized by poor estimates during the early stages of work on these problems.

Sold in America: The Trafficking

Although debates regarding estimates of sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and child abuse and neglect continue, these issues are now accepted as legitimate problems that have benefited from greater public attention, improved funding, and research. Ideally, work on commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States will follow suit.

Therefore, the committee does not suggest that efforts to obtain better estimates of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States be abandoned. Rather, the committee urges. Focusing on better prevalence and incidence estimates is challenging and expensive. Devoting additional resources exclusively to further national-level counting efforts may not be the best strategy to advance work on commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States.

An alternative strategy is to shift focus and resources from national-level counting to more targeted counting e. In this scenario, there are a number of possible benchmark measures that can be used to better understand commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States, including counting. In sum, based on its review of the available evidence, the committee maintains that, despite the current imperfect estimates, commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States clearly are problems of great concern and worthy of attention.

This chapter has emphasized that efforts to generate estimates of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States are characterized by many difficulties. Given the inherent challenges, no approach will result in perfect—or perhaps even nearly perfect—estimates. Still, attempts to provide better, more targeted estimates are warranted. The committee finds that. The next several chapters describe an array of settings and stakeholders that—knowingly or not—interact with underage victims of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking and individuals who are at risk for these forms of victimization.

Addington, L. Rape co-occurrence: Do additional crimes affect victim reporting and police clearance of rape? Journal of Quantitative Criminology 24 2 Anda, R. Felitti, J. Bremner, J. Walker, C. Whitfield, B. Perry, S. Dube, and W. The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 3 Bales, K.

Investigating human trafficking: Challenges, lessons learned, and best practices. Banks, D. Characteristics of suspected human trafficking incidents, Best, J. Damned lies and statistics: Untangling numbers from the media, politicians, and activists. Biderman, A. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, Child Trends.

Violent crime victimization indicators on children and youth. Child maltreatment Curtis, R. Terry, M. Dank, K. Dombrowski, and B. Commercial sexual exploitation of children in New York City. New York: Center for Court Innovation. Dodge, R. Series crimes: Report of a field test. Technical report, NCJ Dube, S. Anda, C. Whitfield, D. Brown, V. Felitti, M. Dong, and W. Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim.

American Journal of Preventive Medicine 28 5 Estes, R. The commercial sexual exploitation of children in the U. Innocence lost national initiative. Supplementary homicide report OMB form no. Uniform crime reporting statistics. Finkelhor, D. Fisher, B. Daigle, and F. What distinguishes single from recurrent sexual victims?

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The role of lifestyle-routine activities and first-incident characteristics. Justice Quarterly 27 1 Gozdziak, E. Human trafficking in the United States: Knowledge gaps and research priorities. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration. Gragg, F. Petta, H. Bernstein, K. Eisen, and L. New York prevalence study of commercially sexually exploited children. Greene, J. Ennett, and C. Prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youth. American Journal of Public Health 89 9 Harris, K. Design features of add health.

Halpern, E. Whitsel, J.

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Hussey, J. Tabor, P. Entzel, and J. The national longitudinal study of adolescent health: Research design. Hart, T. Reporting crime to the police, Heckathorn, D. Respondent-driven sampling: A new approach to the study of hidden populations. Social Problems 44 2 Child maltreatment research, policy, and practice for the next decade: Workshop Summary.

Kaestle, C. Selling and buying sex: A longitudinal study of risk and protective factors in adolescence. Prevention Science 13 3 Lauritsen, J. Owens, M. Planty, M. Rand, and J. Methods for counting high-frequency repeat victimization in the national crime victimization survey. Lynch, J.

Measuring Human Trafficking

New York: Cambridge University Press. Mitchell, K. Finkelhor, L. Jones, and J. Use of social networking sites in online sex crimes against minors: An examination of national incidence and means of utilization. Journal of Adolescent Health 47 2 Moossy, R. Sex trafficking: Identifying cases and victims. National Institute of Justice Journal Pease, K.

Repeat victimisation: Taking stock. Crime prevention and detection series paper London: Home Office. Puzzanchera, C. Juvenile arrests Washington, DC: U. Quin, M. Merritt, M.

Garner, J. Robinson, A. Tedford, T. Allen, A. Allen, C. Purviance, M. Prickett, A. Sanders, P. Beck, A. Marcotte, and N. Tennessee human sex trafficking and its impact on children and youth. Rand, M. Bigger is not necessarily better: An analysis of violence against women estimates from the national crime victimization survey and the national violence against women survey.

Journal of Quantitative Criminology 21 3 : Rennison, C. Rape and sexual assault: Reporting to police and medical attention, Crime reports and statistics. As a start towards better methodological approaches, this review has created an inventory of the divergences and overlaps in exploitation terminology that poses substantial challenges to data collection and analyses. This review was limited in its attempt to measure prevalence and in the generalizations that can be concluded from such diverse and low quality studies.

The quality of these studies, as described by the quality assessment, inhibits confidence in the findings in part due to the challenges associated with this type of sensitive research and in part because of the methodological weaknesses in defining the acts of sexual exploitation and limited capacity for large and generalizable samples.

Actions to address sex trafficking in conflict are clearly urgent. Recent reports by various humanitarian aid organizations and other reviews advise that international leaders initiate policy on human trafficking among refugees. In conflict settings, services are needed to assist individuals who are trafficking survivors and strategies must be developed to help prevent individuals from falling prey to those who will take advantage of the desperation of displaced populations [ 11 , 50 , 51 ].

Recommendations being made by humanitarian agencies and recently published reports are that counter-trafficking efforts need to be implemented immediately, if not before, the onset of conflict as a life saving precaution [ 11 , 50 , 51 ].

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Increasingly, studies among refugees are describing the various ways that crises exacerbate individual vulnerabilities to various forms of exploitation and are calling for stronger evidence to inform policies and intervention approaches. For example, humanitarian aid workers require better information and training to be able to recognize and respond to sexual exploitation and trafficking among IDPs, in refugee camps and detention centers and among displaced populations in urban settings.

Special measures will need to be put in place to help women and girls, in particular, and to support their families to prevent different forms of exploitation. As noted, the robustness of future research, especially prevalence studies, will depend on deciphering the terminology and measurement tools around sex trafficking. Similarly, programme and policy responses will benefit from a deeper understanding of similarities and distinctions between the various forms of sexual exploitation. As international attention has recently turned towards refugees and the many conflict-affected settings, the time is right to focus squarely on human trafficking in these contexts.

Currently the evidence available indicates this is primarily occurring as early or forced marriage, forced combatant sexual exploitation, and sexual slavery. The studies in this review highlight the extraordinary vulnerability of women and girls to these extreme abuses and the severe health outcomes from exposure to this type of violence.

It is critical and long overdue that humanitarian response should include both primary prevention and rehabilitation interventions for these forms of exploitation in the package of life-saving services delivered in conflict-affected settings. This was not funded research since it was conducted for completion of a degree course.

AM carried out the systematic review, data extraction and drafted the manuscript. MH and CZ set the research objective, supervised the search, reviewed the findings and verified the conclusions. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. There are no financial conflicts of interest for this review as it was not a financially funded piece of research, but completed in conjunction with a degree course. There are citations from previous work of all three authors. Alys McAlpine, Email: ku.


Mazeda Hossain, Email: ku. Cathy Zimmerman, Email: ku. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Dec Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Nov 5; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Methods We conducted a systematic search of ten databases and extensive grey literature to gather evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in conflict-affected settings.

Results The search identified 29 eligible papers with evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in armed conflict settings in twelve countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Conclusions Findings indicate there are various forms of human trafficking and sexual exploitation in conflict-affected settings, primarily occurring as early or forced marriage, forced combatant sexual exploitation, and sexual slavery.

Background Recent attention to sexual violence in conflict settings has begun to indicate how displacement, instability and the collapse of laws and basic services can increase the risk of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation, including: early or forced marriage, sexual exploitation of military combatants and sex slavery [ 1 ]. Open in a separate window. Quality assessment and data extraction The quality of each study was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program CASP to assess the strength of the evidence [ 17 ].

Bias Publication bias was minimised by searching bibliographic databases that included grey literature and hand searching for grey literature. Data extraction Studies were classified by the type of data quantitative or qualitative relevant to the indicators of interest. Analysis Given the heterogeneity of definitions and methodologies, a meta-analysis was not possible.

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Results Twenty-nine studies were identified for inclusion, fourteen quantitative and fifteen qualitative. Table 1 Early or forced marriage terminology as defined by the studies in this review. Forced marriage includes constituent acts that are codified crimes in international customary and human rights law.

These crimes include rape, sexual slavery, enforced pregnancy, forced labor, enslavement and torture. Table 2 Sexual exploitation of combatants terminology as defined by the studies in this review. It does not only refer to a child who is taking, or has taken, a direct part in hostilities. Table 3 Sex slavery terminology as defined by the studies in this review. Perpetrators were host country men, employers, aid workers, and family members.

Perpetrators were family members, host country citizens and armed forces personnel. Often field commanders were the greatest culprits with multiple wives. Victims were abducted by RUF soldiers. The RUF were most often responsible for abductions. Many traffickers are involved in complex criminal networks. Often an individual's own family will sell them. During conflict there is militia-perpetrated abduction, forced marriage, and sex slavery. Early or forced marriage Over half of the total number of studies collected data on incidents of early or forced marriage in conflict-affected populations [ 19 — 35 ].

Sexual exploitation of combatants The second classification, sexual exploitation of combatants, was discussed in one-third of the studies [ 28 , 30 , 33 , 34 , 37 , 35 , 36 , 38 — 44 ]. Limitations of this review The search strategy and quality assessment of this review were both conducted by a single reviewer. Discussion Our findings confirm that the growing international attention to sex trafficking and sexual exploitation of individuals in conflict-affected settings is well-warranted [ 11 ].

Acknowledgements Not applicable. Funding This was not funded research since it was conducted for completion of a degree course. Availability of data and material Not applicable. Competing interests There are no financial conflicts of interest for this review as it was not a financially funded piece of research, but completed in conjunction with a degree course.

Consent for publication Not applicable. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. References 1.

Measuring Human Trafficking: Complexities And Pitfalls

Hague W. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes. Lee M. Trafficking and Global Crime Control. Accessed 1 Aug Skrivankova K. Between decent work and forced labour: examining the continuum of exploitation. York: Joseph Rowntree Found; Chuang J. American Journal of International Law. Safer labour migration and community-based prevention of exploitation: The state of the evidence for programming.

London: United Kingdom; Accessed 14 Oct Geneva; United Nations Secretariat. New York: United Nations; Nations U. Accessed 28 Oct Anderson L. Department for International Development. Amaireh W. Gender-based violence and child protection among Syrian refugees in Jordan with a focus on early marriage. Amman: UN Women; Prevalence of war-related sexual violence and other human rights abuses among internally displaced persons in Sierra Leone.

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Duroch, M. McRae, and G. J Am Med Assoc. War related sexual violence and it's medical and psychological consequences as seen in Kitgum, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study.