Track Biochemical Engineering. Biochemical Engineering is an essential area in modern biotechnology. Biochemical engineering includes Bioreactor and fermenter design aspects, Industrial biotechnology, Photobioreactor electrochemical energy conversion, Biological hydrogen production Algae , Biofuel from algae, Bioreactor landfill , and Moss bioreactor. Track Petroleum Engineering.
Petroleum engineering is concerned with the production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gases. Exploration and Production are deemed to fall within the sector of the oil and gas industries. Chemical plants produce olefins by a steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and propane. Aromatics are produced by a process of catalytic reforming of naphtha.
Petroleum refining processes are nothing, but chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refineries to change crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas LPG , gasoline, petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils. Petroleum Chemistry is made of a mixture of different hydrocarbons.
The most prolific hydrocarbons found in the chemistry of petroleum are alkanes; these also sometimes known as branched or linear hydrocarbons. A significant percentage of the remaining chemical compound is the made up of aromatic hydrocarbons and cycloalkanes. Additionally, petroleum chemistry contains several more complex hydrocarbons such as asphaltenes. Each geographical location and hence oil field will produce a raw petroleum with a different combination of molecules depending upon the overall percentage of each hydrocarbon it contains; this directly affects the coloration and viscosity of the petroleum chemistry.
These are termed saturated hydrocarbons and the exhibit either branched or straight molecule chains. Track Coal and Natural Gas. Crude oil, coal and natural gas formed from the prehistoric matter of plants, animals, zooplankton and other life that was buried sometimes miles deep inside the Earth and subjected to high temperatures and high pressure over millions of years. These three so-called fossil fuels include a wide assortment of carbon-based substances.
At that time, only the wealthiest could afford whale oil, which was preferred over candles or animal fats. Americans and others worldwide quickly adopted petroleum and learned to make an unending stream of useful products from it. Simultaneously, a worldwide obsession with striking oil was born. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the world, according to the U. Energy Information Administration.
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- Through Cracks in the Wall: Modern Inquisitions and New Christian Letrados in the Iberian Atlantic World.
Coal is also the source of countless mining and steady supply of greenhouse gases. The major drivers for the growth are increasingly large and complex datasets and Growing number of AI applications in various end-user industries. Moreover, the increasing adoption of AI-enabled products and software tools to improve consumer services further accelerate its market growth. Track Recent advances in Petrochemistry. Without continuous technological innovation, further energy savings will become increasingly difficult to attain. While petrochemical producers have made huge progress in energy reduction, they have almost reached a physical limit where any further reduction would not be of the same proportions as that already achieved.
To continue the momentum of energy savings, the petrochemical sector is focusing on creating products with enhanced performance which in turn reduce energy consumption during their lifetime. Such examples include: Insulation in construction; lightweight plastics used in cars and transportation; solar panels; wind mills and water purification systems among many others. The global analytical standards market is expected to be valued at USD 1. Track Environmental Engineering. Environmental Engineering basically is a branch of applied science which involves the issues of energy preservation, protection, and control of wastes from human and animal activities.
It also includes wastewater management, air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, radiation protection, industrial hygiene, animal agriculture, environmental sustainability, public health and environmental engineering law. Track Crystallization. Crystallization is also a chemical solid—liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs. In chemical engineering, crystallization occurs in a crystallizer.
The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, Fifth Edition
Track Advances in Renewable Chemicals. Renewable chemicals are used for increasing the use of renewable resources rather than fossil fuels. Renewable chemicals contain all the chemicals which are produced from renewable feedstock such as microorganisms, biomass plant, animal, and marine , and agricultural raw materials. Renewable chemicals are utilized in several applications across different Chemical industries such as in food processing, housing, textiles, environment, transportation, hygiene, pharmaceutical, and other applications.
Renewable chemicals are mainly available as ketones, alcohols, organic acids, and bio-polymers. They are used in surfactants and lubricants, consumer goods, resins, and plastics for environmental purpose. There are diverse technologies available in chemical engineering which are used for making renewable chemicals. The high cost and certain subjects related to the production of renewable chemicals are the factors that are hampering the development of this market.
Presently Europe forms the largest market for renewable chemicals, but Asia-Pacific is driving the market growth, and is expected to override the renewable chemicals market by Track Modelling simulation and optimization. Modelling and Simulation is the use of models — physical, mathematical, or otherwise logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon, or process — as a basis for simulations — methods for implementing a model over time — to develop data as a basis for managerial or technical decision making.
Using simulations is generally cheaper, safer and sometimes more ethical than conducting real-world experiments.
Simulation-based optimization integrates optimization techniques into simulation analysis. Because of the complexity of the simulation , the objective function may become difficult and expensive to evaluate. Once a system is mathematically modelled, computer-based simulations provide information about its behavior. In physics-related problems, Monte Carlo methods are useful for simulating systems with many coupled degrees of freedom, such as fluids, disordered materials, strongly coupled solids, and cellular structures.
Agent-based modelling is related to, but distinct from, the concept of multi-agent systems or multi-agent simulation in that the goal of ABM is to search for explanatory insight into the collective behavior of agents obeying simple rules, typically in natural systems, rather than in designing agents or solving specific practical or engineering problems. Track Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering. An Electrochemical Synthesis is a chemical reaction that is caused by the movement of electrical current.
These processes are a type of oxidation-reduction chemical reactions in which one atom or molecule loses an electron to another atom or molecule. In electrochemical process, the atoms or molecules in the reaction are relatively far apart from each other compared to other reactions, forcing the electrons being transferred to travel a greater distance and thereby produce an electrical current. Many natural phenomena depend upon Electrochemical Methods , such as the corrosion of metals, the ability of some sea creatures to produce electrical fields, and the workings of the nervous systems of humans and other animals.
They also play an important part in modern Chemical technology, most prominently in the storage of electrical power in batteries, and the electrochemical process called electrolysis is important in modern industry. Chapter 17 Additives Production from Refinery Feedstocks. Chapter 18 Cost Estimation. Chapter 19 Economic Evaluation.
Definitions of Refining Terms. Physical Properties. Chapter 9 Hydrotreating. Chapter 10 Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization. Chapter 11 Alkylation and Polymerization. Chapter 12 Product Blending. Chapter 13 Supporting Processes. Prabir Basu. Jack T. The Rubber Formulary. Peter A. Gas Purification. Arthur L Kohl. Rotary Kilns.
Akwasi A Boateng. Heavy and Extra-heavy Oil Upgrading Technologies. Natural Gas.
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Donald M. Renewable Energy. Carbon Capture and Storage. Stephen A. Introduction to Materials Chemistry. Harry R. William C. Maximilian Lackner. A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering. Carl Schaschke. Environmental Calculations. Robert G. Handbook of Non-Ferrous Metal Powders. Stanislav Naboychenko. Handbook of Friction Materials and their Applications. Roberto C Dante. Synthetic Fuels. Ronald F. Fluid Catalytic Cracking Handbook. Reza Sadeghbeigi. Integrated Reservoir Asset Management. John Fanchi. Experimental Methods and Instrumentation for Chemical Engineers.
Gregory S. Gas Sweetening and Processing Field Manual.
Maurice Stewart. Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination. Natural Gas Hydrates. John Carroll. Eugeniy G. The Physics of Energy. Robert L. Heavy Oil Production Processes. Private Empire.
The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, Fifth Edition - James G. Speight - Google книги
Steve Coll. Shale Gas Production Processes. Permeability Properties of Plastics and Elastomers. Laurence W.
Handbook of Petroleum Analysis James Speight
Reservoir Engineering Handbook. Tarek Ahmed. Polymers in Industry from A to Z. Leno Mascia. Fluid Flow Measurement. Loy Upp. Elements of Petroleum Geology. Richard C. Materials Processing. Lorraine F.
Metallocene Catalyzed Polymers. George M. Jon Steinar Gudmundsson. Kayode Coker.